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As was the case in Britain, by the early 19th century, North American schools and universities played their own local games, between sides made up of students.
For example, students at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire played a game called Old division football , a variant of the association football codes, as early as the s.
Rules were simple, violence and injury were common. Yale University , under pressure from the city of New Haven , banned the play of all forms of football in , while Harvard University followed suit in A hybrid of the two, known as the " Boston game ", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club.
The club, considered by some historians as the first formal football club in the United States, was formed in by schoolboys who played the "Boston game" on Boston Common.
The universities of Yale, Princeton then known as the College of New Jersey , Rutgers , and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time.
In , Princeton used rules based on those of the English Football Association. In Canada, the first documented football match was a practice game played on November 9, , at University College, University of Toronto approximately yards west of Queen's Park.
One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was Sir William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Barlow Cumberland, Frederick A.
Bethune, and Christopher Gwynn, one of the founders of Milton, Massachusetts, devised rules based on rugby football. On November 6, , Rutgers faced Princeton in a game that was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used improvised rules.
It is usually regarded as the first game of American intercollegiate football. During the game, the two teams alternated between the rugby-based rules used by McGill and the Boston Game rules used by Harvard.
On November 23, , representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit Convention in Springfield, Massachusetts , agreeing to adopt most of the Rugby Football Union rules, with some variations.
In , Yale coach Walter Camp , who had become a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where the rules were debated and changed, devised a number of major innovations.
Camp's two most important rule changes that diverged the American game from rugby was replacing the scrummage with the line of scrimmage and the establishment of the down-and-distance rules.
President Theodore Roosevelt to hold a meeting with football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton on October 9, , urging them to make drastic changes.
Though it was underutilised for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.
Over the years, Canada absorbed some of the developments in American football in an effort to distinguish it from a more rugby-oriented game.
In , the Ontario Rugby Football Union adopted the Burnside rules , which implemented the line of scrimmage and down-and-distance system from American football, among others.
In the midth century, various traditional football games, referred to collectively as caid , remained popular in Ireland, especially in County Kerry.
One observer, Father W. Ferris, described two main forms of caid during this period: By the s, Rugby and Association football had started to become popular in Ireland.
Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of Rugby see the Developments in the s section, above. The rules of the English FA were being distributed widely.
Traditional forms of caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game" which allowed tripping. There was no serious attempt to unify and codify Irish varieties of football, until the establishment of the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA in The GAA sought to promote traditional Irish sports, such as hurling and to reject imported games like Rugby and Association football.
The first Gaelic football rules were drawn up by Maurice Davin and published in the United Ireland magazine on February 7, Davin's rules showed the influence of games such as hurling and a desire to formalise a distinctly Irish code of football.
The prime example of this differentiation was the lack of an offside rule an attribute which, for many years, was shared only by other Irish games like hurling, and by Australian rules football.
Professionalism had already begun to creep into the various codes of football. In England, by the s, a long-standing Rugby Football Union ban on professional players was causing regional tensions within rugby football, as many players in northern England were working class and could not afford to take time off to train, travel, play and recover from injuries.
This was not very different from what had occurred ten years earlier in soccer in Northern England but the authorities reacted very differently in the RFU, attempting to alienate the working class support in Northern England.
In , following a dispute about a player being paid broken time payments, which replaced wages lost as a result of playing rugby, representatives of the northern clubs met in Huddersfield to form the Northern Rugby Football Union NRFU.
The new body initially permitted only various types of player wage replacements. However, within two years, NRFU players could be paid, but they were required to have a job outside sport.
The demands of a professional league dictated that rugby had to become a better "spectator" sport. This was followed by the replacement of the ruck with the "play-the-ball ruck", which allowed a two-player ruck contest between the tackler at marker and the player tackled.
Mauls were stopped once the ball carrier was held, being replaced by a play-the ball-ruck. Over time, the RFU form of rugby, played by clubs which remained members of national federations affiliated to the IRFB, became known as rugby union.
The need for a single body to oversee association football had become apparent by the beginning of the 20th century, with the increasing popularity of international fixtures.
The English Football Association had chaired many discussions on setting up an international body, but was perceived as making no progress.
It fell to associations from seven other European countries: The French name and acronym has remained, even outside French-speaking countries.
Rugby league rules diverged significantly from rugby union in , with the reduction of the team from 15 to 13 players. In , a New Zealand professional rugby team toured Australia and Britain, receiving an enthusiastic response, and professional rugby leagues were launched in Australia the following year.
However, the rules of professional games varied from one country to another, and negotiations between various national bodies were required to fix the exact rules for each international match.
During the second half of the 20th century, the rules changed further. In , rugby league officials borrowed the American football concept of downs: The maximum number of tackles was later increased to six in , and in rugby league this became known as the six tackle rule.
The laws of rugby union also changed during the 20th century, although less significantly than those of rugby league.
In particular, goals from marks were abolished, kicks directly into touch from outside the 22 metre line were penalised, new laws were put in place to determine who had possession following an inconclusive ruck or maul , and the lifting of players in line-outs was legalised.
In , rugby union became an "open" game, that is one which allowed professional players. The word football , when used in reference to a specific game can mean any one of those described above.
Because of this, much friendly controversy has occurred over the term football , primarily because it is used in different ways in different parts of the English-speaking world.
Most often, the word "football" is used to refer to the code of football that is considered dominant within a particular region.
So, effectively, what the word "football" means usually depends on where one says it. In each of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada, one football code is known solely as "football", while the others generally require a qualifier.
In New Zealand, "football" historically referred to rugby union , but more recently may be used unqualified to refer to association football.
The sport meant by the word "football" in Australia is either Australian rules football or rugby league , depending on local popularity which largely conforms to the Barassi Line.
Several of the football codes are the most popular team sports in the world. These codes have in common the prohibition of the use of hands by all players except the goalkeeper , unlike other codes where carrying or handling the ball is allowed.
The hockey game bandy has rules partly based on the association football rules and is sometimes nicknamed as 'winter football'. These codes have in common the ability of players to carry the ball with their hands, and to throw it to teammates, unlike association football where the use of hands is prohibited by anyone except the goal keeper.
They also feature various methods of scoring based upon whether the ball is carried into the goal area, or kicked through a target.
These codes have in common the absence of an offside rule, the prohibition of continuous carrying of the ball requiring a periodic bounce or solo toe-kick , depending on the code while running, handpassing by punching or tapping the ball rather than throwing it, and other traditions.
Games still played at UK public independent schools:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of related team sports.
This article is about the overall concept of games called football. For the balls themselves, see Football ball. For specific versions of the game and other uses of the term, see Football disambiguation.
Attempts to ban football games. English public school football games. Origins of Australian rules football.
The first football international, Scotland versus England. Once kept by the Rugby Football Union as an early example of rugby football. History of rugby union.
History of Gaelic football. History of rugby league. Variants of association football. Comparison of American football and rugby league , Comparison of American football and rugby union , Comparison of Canadian and American football , and Comparison of rugby league and rugby union.
Comparison of Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Journal of Sports Science. Soccer — or should we say football — must change". Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 11 January Football at Winchester, Eton and Harrow".
The International Journal of the History of Sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. Science and Football Second ed.
Retrieved 14 December Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity. University of Hawaii Press. Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Violence in Early Modern Europe — Le sport et les jeux d'exercice dans l'ancienne France.
Retrieved January 11, , from http: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. Sports in the Western World. University of Illinois Press.
Archived from the original on Women, Football and Europe: Histories, Equity and Experience. International Football Institute Series.
Encyclopedia of British Football. The game was this: The First Hundred Years. Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 9, Archived June 16, , at the Wayback Machine.
It is known that he created this for both association and rugby footballs. However, sites devoted to football indicate he was known as HJ Lindon , who was actually Richard Lindon's son, and created the ball in ref: Soccer Ball World , whereas rugby sites refer to him as Richard Lindon creating the ball in ref: Both agree that his wife died when inflating pig's bladders.
This information originated from web sites which may be unreliable, and the answer may only be found in researching books in central libraries.
History of football from the beginnings to From Sheffield with Love. Football, the First Hundred Years.
Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on June 25, Bayern ahead of Dortmund clash Manuel Neuer: Top-of-the-table clash 99th Bundesliga Klassiker.
DFB Cup Round 2. Champions League Matchday 4. More Standings Matchday Standings Matchday. Champions League Matchday 5. Limit period Filter categories.
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